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The Guide to the topic of
Bed Bugs.


Instagram post - construction.jpg


The bed bug is a species of bug (Hemiptera) and belongs to the family of the flat bugs (Cimicidae). Like all its species, it feeds exclusively on blood. Their development cycle goes through five stages. In each of these stages it needs food (blood) at least once in order to be able to develop further. An adult bed bug feeds weekly. However, it can also survive up to six months without food.

Die Bettwanze



The development time of the bed bug depends on the room temperature.


In areas where the temperature is consistently less than 13° Celsius , development stops, the females do not lay eggs and eggs that have already been laid do not hatch.


Activities also decrease in rooms that are consistently above 36° Celsius . At temperatures above 60° Celsius , both the eggs and the bed bugs die off.

effect of temperature on bedbug eggs


illustradet bedbug eggs


Bed bug reproduction is highly dependent on room temperature. Under ideal conditions, females can lay 15 to 25 eggs per week , and up to 500 eggs in total over a lifetime.





The economic necessity - especially in the hotel industry and in the tourism sector - forces every responsible operator or director to deal proactively with the topic of bed bug infestations.


Negative headlines in the media, online portals and legal proceedings - as a result of complaints about bed bug infestations - pose a serious threat to the company.


The “social networks” make it even more difficult for a good complaint handling . Pictures of any stings or infestations are quickly photographed and posted here. It is not uncommon for these to be flea bites or small beetles that look similar to bed bugs. Such messages are spread before hotel management has even had a chance to address the issue.


It is correct and important that new infestations are unavoidable, since bed bugs are constantly being brought in by guests .

The key therefore lies in prevention. With good prevention , a new infestation can be detected and eliminated at an early stage (i.e. BEFORE the guest notices it).

This apparent extra effort pays off because NO ROOMS have to be LOCKED and NEGATIVE REVIEWS are missing.


Proven preventive measures also protect against legal claims , because as an entrepreneur you can demonstrably fulfill your DUTY OF DUE DILIGENCE and thus ward off claims for damages.




In the hotel and catering industry, preventive routine checks are therefore an important part of the bed bug control strategy . Such routine checks can mostly be carried out by trained (hotel's own) staff. It just needs to be ensured that staff are familiar with the signs of a bed bug infestation and that bed bug TRAINING has been carried out.

The frequency of routine checks should be tailored to the needs of the hotel and supported by occasional CHECKS by the NEMESIS TEAM .




  • Training housekeeping staff to recognize bed bug infestations

  • Training of in-house technicians to recognize bed bug infestations

  • Training of reception staff in dealing with complaints in the event of infestations




Bed bugs 'thrive' best where they have shelter close to the host. This means that they use cracks and crevices in furniture or walls to hide and multiply well. When bed bugs are dispersed by chemical control or physical disturbance, they will also use safe havens farther from the bed.

Smooth and flawless surfaces can therefore reduce the number of possible hiding places and the uncontrolled spread of bed bugs in the event of an infestation.


Silicone or other sealants can be used to seal cracks and crevices, minimizing the number of places bed bugs can hide . Such essential measures will make future treatments easier and more effective.


Chemically impregnated mattress covers are not recommended as such mattress covers are commonly treated with pyrethroids and most bed bug species are resistant to this.


Luggage racks are available in most hotels . Travelers are well advised to take advantage of these. Away from the floor and bed, the luggage remains protected and bed bugs only get into the suitcase under major circumstances.

Waldemar in opperation
WALDEMAR in action - mattress bed bug infestation Kot.jpg
Entwicklungszeit der Bettwanze
Fotpflanzungsrate Bettwanze
Prävention Bettwanzenbekämpfung






Nowadays there are many start-ups dealing with bed bug control monitoring. Some of these may be helpful. However, they pose a risk due to the lack of independent research.

If a method has been proven, such monitoring systems can be valuable for the early detection of new infestations, as well as being useful for monitoring after successful elimination.

There are both active and passive surveillance systems. Active systems use attractants to lure bed bugs into a trap. Passive systems use the host as a lure.




In active systems, there are methods that use insect pheromones 1)  to attract bed bugs. There are also systems that emit heat or emit CO2 to simulate the presence of a host .




Passive systems rely on mechanical methods to eliminate bed bugs.


Widespread are:

  • The natural biocide diatomaceous earth double-sided adhesive tape : It is stuck on the bed feet area, which prevents the bed bugs from reaching the host

Bed-foot trap: The existing bed feet are replaced with bed-foot traps, preventing the bed bugs from reaching the host

1) Insect pheromones are messengers that are used for chemical communication between insect species




The use of passive monitoring systems of any kind does entail risks, because reliance on such systems can lead to carelessness and thus escalate the spread of bed bugs unnoticed.


Therefore you should ask yourself the following questions:


  1. Is it a value method?

  2. What are the acquisition costs?

  3. What follow-up costs are there (maintenance/electricity/subscription)?

  4. Does it fit aesthetically in the room?





Some insects resemble bed bugs in the various stages of development. Therefore, it is not uncommon for a bed bug infestation to be wrongly reported.

It is advisable to check or have a possible infestation checked beforehand.

In order to be able to clearly determine whether you really have bed bugs, it is important to know all the developmental stages of bed bugs and to know which insects they are very similar to.



Most cockroach species are much larger than bed bugs, although cockroach larvae can resemble bed bugs. A closer look reveals the long, slender antennae of the cockroach nymph.


Book lice are most commonly found on old books and in stored foods such as B. Found flour. They are similar in size and color to first-instar bed bug nymphs. You need a magnifying glass to find out. Booklice have long, slender antennae and a clearly defined head.


Carpet beetles belong to the bacon beetles, some species of which resemble bed bugs in size and shape. They are among the household insects most likely to be found in or around your bed. The shells of their larvae can be confused with those of bed bugs, with the numerous hairs of most carpet beetle larvae and the molting residue being a striking distinguishing feature. Carpet beetles do not bite, but can cause bite-like skin reactions in some people.



Thief beetles are a subfamily of beetles with long antennae similar in size to freshly fed first or second instar bed bug nymphs. Some spider beetles even have a shimmering red body that makes them appear as if they are filled with blood. Thief beetles will infest stored food but will not bite humans.




Flower bugs eat aphids and are found on fruit trees. Although they are rarely found indoors, they bear close resemblances to bed bug nymphs and will occasionally bite humans as well.

Life cyle of the Bedbug
cockroach nymph.jpg
dust louse-bed bug.jpg
carpet beetle.jpg
thief beetle.jpg
flower bug.jpg



Bedbug description
Bedbug eggs
bedbug bites

Chances are you don't have bed bugs at all. Very often we find that customers report bed bugs in error. In fact, the Bed Bug Foundation reports that less than 20% of the samples and images it receives are confirmed to be bed bugs 2) .


As a result, pest controllers may perform expensive bed bug treatments when the customer is not actually infested with bed bugs.


Protect yourself against misconceptions and consult this GUIDE before hiring a pest control company.

2) Source: Bedbug Foundation, UK




Bed bugs exhibit the following characteristics at all stages of their life cycle except in the larval stage.




Bed bug eggs are about 1.2 mm long and easily distinguishable from other insects.

Viable eggs are pearl colored and acquire an 'eye spot' at a later stage, indicating a developing embryo.

Hatched eggs can be recognized by the lack of the "eye spot" and by the transparent exterior.




Experienced specialists can easily distinguish bedbugs from other insects by molting. However, since the remnants remain for a very long time, they are not a clear indication of whether it is a current or previous infestation.


Bed bugs produce dark, watery feces once they have fed. These fecal traces are usually the first and best indicator of an infestation.

Black ink-like stains on walls, mattresses, or bed frames are the most well-known signs of bed bugs. However, spiders, flies and cockroaches can also produce such spots.




Bed bugs feed mainly in freely accessible places. They crawl around on the host less often. In search of a suitable bite site, the bed bug bites several times, resulting in a series of bite marks.

Important: Similar bite marks can also be caused by other insects such as mosquitoes, fleas and lice. Allergic reactions can also be caused by scabies, mites and a variety of allergens.

Allergic reactions to bed bug bites vary. Some sufferers show no reaction, while others develop severe blistering. More serious anaphylactic-like reactions are rare but can occur.

The symptoms can appear up to two weeks after the bite, especially the first time. As a result, it is difficult to determine exactly where and when you were bitten.

This can lead to erroneous assumptions. Those affected could therefore assume that the bed bugs are already at home or were present in a hotel.


Bed bugs feed mainly at night. They are very adaptable and also make their feeding cycle dependent on the daily movements of the host. Therefore, chairs and sofas are more likely to be infested if the host spends most of their time there. In this case, the bed bug is forced to feed throughout the day.

The symptoms can appear up to two weeks after the bite, especially the first time. As a result, it is difficult to determine exactly where and when you were bitten. This can lead to erroneous assumptions. Those affected could therefore assume that the bed bugs are already at home or were present in a hotel.

Bed bugs feed mainly at night. They are very adaptable and also make their feeding cycle dependent on the daily movements of the host. Therefore, chairs and sofas are more likely to be infested if the host spends most of their time there. In this case, the bed bug is forced to feed throughout the day.

Bettwanzen und Schädlinge
Bettwanzen Befall erkennn



The conventional way of relying solely on chemical elimination has meant that many insects have now built up resistance. They have become immune.
In addition, the use of effective insecticides is no longer permitted thanks to strict regulations. Other strategies are now needed.

Successful control of the problem is only possible if the
following 6 steps are taken.

1. identification of the infestation
2. extent of the infestation (AUDIT)
3. mechanical control
4. removal of structural defects (hiding places)
5. follow-up control
6. prevention

Since traditional pest controllers do not provide these services to this extent, WALDEMAR has combined these competences under one roof. This
all steps can be carried out efficiently and in a coordinated manner.


WALDEMAR in action - devices




Consistent action requires a systematic approach. The bed bug management system (BMS for short) is used for this.
This system includes clear processes, measures and instructions on how to behave. You will receive a BMS after the AUDIT and before combat.

It includes the following:
• AUDIT report from all rooms
• List of construction defects

   Potential hiding spots
  "Bridges" to surrounding rooms

• Employee training
  Dealing with guests
  Interpretation of bed bug infestation
  First measures in case of infestation

• Training of the cleaning staff
  Interpretation of bed bug infestation
  How to deal with affected bedding

• Cost overview of all measures

Schritte der Bettwanzenbekämpfung



The process in private households and in the hospitality industry is different, because in the private sector there is usually a one-off action and in the hospitality industry there is long-term cooperation.
The following process maps show the typical processes involved in fighting.



Report to WALDEMAR


WALDEMAR checks the rooms


Calculate deployment costs & end deployment



arrange assignment
treat infestation



Report to WALDEMAR



TEAM arrives within 24 hours


WALDEMAR checks the rooms


log use

& break up



Check adjoining rooms & deal with infestation





Bed bugs mainly hide where people (hosts) are at night. Accordingly, one finds aich most often in bed or near it.

They continue to hide due to inadequate control (use of ineffective chemicals and expulsion through the use of heaters).

off the bed.

The usual hiding spots are:

• In and under the mattress
• In the bed frame, bed frame and slatted frame
• Behind the headboard
• Behind picture and poster frames
• Behind loosened wallpaper
• Behind skirting boards
• In sockets
• Behind cupboards and shelves
• In curtains and curtain rails
• In cable ducts
• In baseboards


In the event of a suspicion, it is advisable to first check whether it is actually a bed bug before reporting an infestation. The aim of a preliminary check is to avoid unnecessary travel and deployment costs.
Reputable pest controllers offer (online) free or for a small fee to determine the
type of infestation .
If the infestation is confirmed, thorough preparation is essential.




Before treatment can take place, the extent of the infestation should be determined. This means that inaccessible hiding places must also be checked.
Specially trained tracking dogs are now used for such checks . In addition to visual perception , tracking dogs also use their sense of smell to find bed bugs that cavort behind skirting boards, wallpaper, baseboards and in cable ducts.
In hotels, all adjoining rooms should also be
checked using the cube method .


So that combating can be carried out effectively, you should
Prepare rooms well.


The following must be observed here:

• Strip beds and put linens in

Seal cornstarch bags
• Place mattresses
upright in the room
• Dismantle the bed frames
and move to the middle

of the room
Place slatted frames in the middle of the room
Remove the headboard and place it in the middle of the room
Remove picture and poster frames and put them in

put in the middle of the room
Remove sockets and move to the middle

of the room
Place cupboards and shelves in the center of the room




Given that the use of chemicals has been heavily regulated for good reason and many species of bed bugs are already resistant to common pesticides, chemical-free methods are increasingly being used, not least for ecological and sustainable reasons.

After an infestation has been detected visually and/or by a sniffer dog, bed bugs living on the surface are removed with an industrial vacuum cleaner .
These industrial vacuum cleaners are equipped with extremely powerful motors and
have enormous suction power.
Through the use of
crevice nozzles , carpets and/or laminate baseboards, bed borders,
Mattress seams and other areas meticulously vacuumed.

After each use, the vacuum cleaner is kept isolated and cleaned of any adhering dirt
Insects and/or eggs free.


As a next step, the eggs and possible hiding places are treated with dry steam.
The high temperature of approx.
100°C   immediately kills the eggs and the hidden bed bugs in all stages of development.
steam flow rate is kept very low to prevent bed bugs from getting into others
Areas are "blown". In addition, the treated areas remain relative
In order to achieve success, it is important to ensure that all devices are used professionally.


Liquid nitrogen has the advantage that it is heavier than air. That's why he comes first
for structural defects such as cracks in walls. Come bed bugs
in contact with liquid nitrogen,
they and their eggs freeze in a flash and are dead.
Care must also be taken with dry ice devices to ensure that they are used properly, because insufficient treatment only has a
numbing effect : bed bugs and eggs treated with dry ice can thaw out again after a short warming phase and continue to live.


Bed bugs die at a permanent temperature of over approx. 47 degrees Celsius.
In order to be able to carry out such a treatment successfully, there must be no possibility of retreat
give to neighboring rooms. The room to be treated must be well insulated.
In addition, all heat-sensitive objects must be removed from the room.
These must be checked for infestation beforehand.
If there are escape routes into adjoining rooms or shafts, this method is not recommended because bed bugs become extremely
active when the room is heated up .
Heat treatments are offered by a few specialized companies because the equipment has a high purchase price. In addition, it is imperative to have precise knowledge of the properties of the device.
In addition, the heaters require a very high electrical output, which is not the case everywhere
is available. Treatment times vary depending on the circumstances. They are in between
24 and 72 hours per room.


Washing is one of the most effective measures for infested clothes, curtains, bedding
etc. Infested fabrics should be
washed at 60°C .
Before transporting the items, you should pack them in cornstarch bags and seal them.


Delicate laundry can also be tumble dried for about 30 to 60 minutes at the highest setting
treat. Please make sure that the device reaches more than 47 degrees.
Bekämpfungsablauf bei Bettwanzenbfall
Bettwanzen Verstecke finden
Bekämpfung vorbereiten
Chemiefreie Bettwanzen Bekämpfung




Treatment is only successful when the identified infestation has been completely eliminated.
The control should therefore be just as thorough as the treatment. This will focus on any bed bugs that may still be present. Also will
checks whether all (structural) defects have been professionally remedied.


Any deficiencies (loopholes) identified during the audit or during treatment must be rectified immediately. Should this not happen
there is a very high risk that new bed bugs will settle in there again and
use them as nests.
Only by eliminating the defects in combination with a thorough check can a bed bug-free building be ensured.




Several studies have been conducted into whether and to what extent bed bugs transmit diseases.
Although a whole range of pathogens have been found on and in bed bugs, there has been
no evidence to date that bed bugs transmit these pathogens
transmitted to humans.


This does not mean that bed bugs are unproblematic from a medical point of view.
Physical reactions to bites / stings can be very different and sometimes have severe effects. Bite marks on the skin can be visible for weeks and in some cases lead to scarring.


The psychological effects, such as anxiety, of a bed bug infestation can be serious, although they are currently poorly understood.
People affected by bed bug infestations often complain of
sleep deprivation and related symptoms.
Above all
, states of anxiety can be severe and, in the worst case, lead to delusions , so that the person concerned thinks he or she and/or
its surroundings would be infested with countless biting and crawling bed bugs.
These symptoms can persist despite successful control.

Kontrolle und Nachbehandung


Since global travel is part of everyday life nowadays, we have to prepare for new challenges. These behaviors result in unknown viruses (e.g. COVID-19) or the spread of unwanted insects such as bed bugs. Beyond the consequences, it is enormously important that we actively deal with such topics, so that in addition to the question of - why? - also that - how do we deal with it? - be able to implement it as successfully as possible.

This is the only way we can guard against panic-like reactions and protect ourselves from companies that shamelessly exploit such situations.

TEAM WALDEMAR is always available to answer any questions you may have.

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